|INTERGLAD is the International Glass Database System developed and first
released in 1991 by the New Glass Forum. INTERGLAD Ver. 7 is the latest
information system for glasses; it contains data on the properties and/or
structural features of approximately 310,000 types of glasses. It is designed
to enable users to easily extract and use a wide variety of information
suited to their purposes. It also enables users to predict properties of
glasses and to design glasses of new composition based on the collected
data. The NGF expects that this new version will become a favorite resource
of glass users and producers and will assist in the development of the
glass industry as well as related fields and scientific pursuits.
1. History of INTERGLAD
Work on the realization of the INTERGLAD International Glass Database began in 1987, which was the year in which the NGF was established, as part of its international contribution program. A group composed of glass researchers from both domestic universities and companies, led by Dr. Itaru Yasui, then a Professor at the University of Tokyo, worked on the database project from system design to data collection for three years, with the cooperation of several major foreign glass companies and the Dainippon Printing Company.
A CD-ROM containing the database system was released in April 1991 as the
world’s first glass database1. The original collected data encompassed approximately 100,000 glass compositions,
and the input of data continued to the point of 120,000 compositions in
Ver. 2, which was released in 1993, and 150,000 compositions in Ver. 3,
which was released in 1996.
Until Ver. 3, the database could be run only on the MS-DOS operating system,
using a CD-ROM. With the release of Ver. 4 in 1999, it became possible
to access the database on either a CD-ROM or the Internet, using Windows,
Macintosh, and Unix operating systems coupled with browser software. The
Internet version was developed by the Toppan Printing Company2. Additional data were added to the Internet version each year, with the
number of glass compositions reaching 180,000 by autumn of 2000.
The system’s functioning was greatly enhanced with the release of Ver.
5 in 2001. Besides improvements made to the registration function, data
analysis, composition/property prediction obtained by multiple regression
analysis3 and additivity equations, and user data registration functions were added;
these additions greatly improved the features offered by the database and
the convenience of users. These developments were achieved with the support
of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry in cooperation with the
INTERGLAD Ver. 6 was developed from the end of 2002 to 2004 in cooperation with the Database Promotion Committee chaired by then Prof. Rikuo Ota of Kyoto Institute of Technology with the support of the Mizuho Information & Research Institute, Inc. This enterprise was part of the Research and Development to Promote the Creation and Utilization of an Intellectual Infrastructure program of the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). Throughout the project, the focus was upon high reliability for both the data and system sides of INTERGLAD, with data being systematically reviewed4 and continually corrected as needed. In the multiple regression analysis,
a regression equation without a constant5 was added. In addition, an applet version that could be used without installing
the program on the user’s computer was added for increased user convenience
in November 2005.
From July 2005 to March 2007, the NGF developed a prototype of the world’s
first glass structure database6 related tools. This development was proceeded in cooperation with the Glass Structure Database Committee chaired by Professor Hiroyuki Inoue of the University of Tokyo as part of the Research and Development to Promote the Creation and Utilization of an Intellectual Infrastructure program of NEDO. The developed database of glass structures, which included factors such as interatomic distance, bond angle, ring structure, and coordination number was integrated into the newly released INTERGLAD Ver. 7 in 2009 (in Japan) and in 2010 (worldwide). Moreover, a multiple regression analysis tool with multiple polynomials7, a data interpolation tool that can determine high temperature properties with few data, and a periodic table for easy component selection during searches, etc. were included in Ver. 7. This version was also developed with the support of the Mizuho Information & Research Institute, Inc.
As shown in Fig. 1, each year, new data have been added to INTERGLAD. Currently
(November 2013), INTERGLAD contains data for 309,000 types of glasses (structure
INTERGLAD has been used for the development of new types of glass, such
as low dispersion glass8 and lead-free crystal glass9, patent surveys related to glass composition, research into glass properties,
searches in the field of research on new glass composition, and the development
of new glass products. INTERGLAD has clearly played an important role in
the development of the glass industry and glass research around the world.
|Fig. 1 Successive Versions and Data Renewal of INTERGLAD.
2. New Features and Improvements of INTERGLAD Ver. 7
1) Integrated glass structure database
The world’s first database of glass structure information such as interatomic distance, bond angle, coordination number, bridging oxygen information, and oxidation number has been developed and integrated into INTERGLAD.
Although it still includes few registered structure data, it is easy to search for the structural data for various compositions of glass and to analyze them well, which makes it possible to investigate the relationships among composition, properties, and structure. This is expected to contribute to the development of new glasses.
Ver. 7 is composed of a glass property database and a glass structure database. These databases have different entrances, but they are merged together internally.
2) Evolved multiple regression analysis for properties
A multiple regression analysis tool with multiple (quadratic or cubic) polynomials has been included. It is able to use not just one-component terms, but also two- or three-component terms as explanatory variables. This is effective for predicting the properties of many glasses for which additivity is not indicated. Assistance dialogues have also been prepared to facilitate easier prediction. Responses to Question messages and corrections to Error messages can be performed semiautomatically for easier analysis (from Ver. 7. 2).
3) Temperature-property plotting
When a dataset for a given glass includes the property data at different temperatures, a temperature-property XY plot can be drawn. The density, surface tension, thermal conductivity, etc. can all be applied to such a plot.
4) Easier selection of ternary plot condition (from Ver. 7. 2)
All selections of conditions for a ternary plot such as 3 components and property can be done in the [Ternary Plot] window, and the ternary plot changes instantaneously.
5) Multi-selection of data source (from Ver. 7. 3)
As a search condition, 4 data sources (categories) can be selected. To
specify relationships among the selected data sources, AND, OR or NOT can
be selected for each data source.
6) Data interpolation tool
Using the interpolation (extrapolation) tool, property values can be calculated for given temperatures without fact data. The obtained data can also be used in multiple regression analysis. This tool is effective for the analysis of high temperature properties with few data.
The object properties that can be calculated include density, Young’s modulus, surface tension, specific heat, thermal conductivity, viscosity, electric conductivity, electric resistance, dielectric loss, etc.
7) Easier search tools
A Simple Search Window that offers only composition and property columns as search conditions is now offered in addition to the conventional Full Search Window.
A new Periodic Table Small Window has also been included to make it easier to select components as the conditions of composition.
A key-word input tool makes both composition and property selection easier to search for.
8) Increased and improved additivity equations
An equation for thermal conductivity proposed by Ammar10 has been added. The composition ranges that enable one to perform calculations could be widened to accommodate nine equations and could be appropriately narrowed for one equation. Three equations for standard point of viscosity and an equation for electrical conductivity both proposed by Fluegel11 have been added (from Ver. 7.3).
9) Extended print and save functions
The printing of glass information from a Data Source Window, file saving from the multiple regression analysis window, image saving of the prediction result, etc. are now possible.
10) Tool bars and menu bars
All the program’s functions are indicated on the tool bars, and frequently used items are accessible via icons on the menu bars.
11) CD Full Function Edition
The full function edition of INTERGLAD is also usable with a PC that is not connected to the web. When this edition is used, there is no possibility of invasion by a third party, which makes it practical and secure, particularly the user database.
12) Enhanced User Data function
The user definitions of glass codes and property names are free.
13) System speed-up
Complicated searches (with plural NOTs, etc.) are completed more quickly.
14) Continued registration of new data and improved reliability
New property data for 7,000–8,000 types of glasses are registered each year, as are data corrections for over 1,000 glasses. In addition, the volume of structural data is steadily and continually increased.
15) Renewed user’s manual
Basic visual procedures for various purposes have been prepared and the
ID lists have been also renewed. Examples of use have been revised and
enlarged to 26 examples (in 2012). The user’s manual is regularly updated
in PDF and the latest PDF manual can be referenced and downloaded on the
INTERGLAD web page at any time (for annual contract users).
16) The latest INTERGLAD program
The latest INTERGLAD program can be used in an Internet Edition at any
time. The Standard Edition of the INTERGLAD program, which can be renewed
each year, can be downloaded from our web page simply by inputting a User
ID and Password (for annual contract users).
17) System Renewal
The system has been totally renovated to be compatible with the latest OS, Browser, and Java environment.
1 Y. Suzuki, Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull., 70 (1991) 219.
2 T. Saitou, H. Oguro, T. Fukami, T. Iseda, Proceedings of the Japan Society
of Information and Knowledge, May 1999, p.63.
3 I. Yasui, F. Utsuno, Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull., 72 (1993) 65.
4 T. Iseda, Y. Iwasa, S. Yoshida, T. Kawasaki, Proc. XX-ICG (ICG, Sept.
5 F. Utsno, H. Inoue, I. Yasui, S. Tsuboi, T. Iseda, Proc. XX-ICG (ICG,
Sept. 2004) 07-030
6 K. Suzuki, T. Iseda, H. Inoue, ICG2007, A36.
7 K. Suzuki, T. Iseda, H. Inoue, A. Masuno, PACRIM8-S23-P179-2009.
8 M. Fukuoka, H. Kinoshita, S. Noda, Y. Morita, J. Ceram. Soc. Jap., 110(2002),
9 H. Satha, M. Remram, J. Simons, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Glass Problems (ICG, Sept. 1996) p.193.
10 M. M. Ammer, S. A. Gharib, M. M. Halawa, H. A. El-Batal, K. El-Badry,
Communications of American Ceramic Society, May 1983, C-76.
11 A. Fluegel, Glass Technology: Euro. J. Glass. Science and Technology
Part A, 48 (1) (2007) 13-30.
3. Contents and Functions
The international glass database INTERGLAD Ver. 7 is an information system
that contains comprehensive data on approximately 310,000 types of glasses
(including inorganic amorphous materials such as oxide glasses, non-oxide
glasses, amorphous metals and glass-matrix composites, and oxide melts
and non-vitrified oxides). It was designed for a variety of uses and purposes.
Its main functions are four-fold:
1) Search for glass data,
2) Analysis of searched-for glass data,
3) Prediction of properties and the design of glass composition (composition optimization), and
4) Registration of user data and its utilization.
(1) Collected data
The INTERGLAD data set is mainly composed of glass compositions and properties
drawn from five sources: data books, scientific journals, proceedings,
patents, and company catalogues. Original data assembled by the NGF are
Beginning with Ver. 5, the names of authors from scientific journals, data indicating glass-forming regions, and figures have been added to the collected data. Data on glass-forming regions in which only a single boundary exists have been also registered in Ver. 6. Information on precipitated crystals in glass-ceramics, raw materials for sol-gel processes, substrates of thin-film glasses, glass preparation methods, heat treatment conditions, and methods for determining properties have also been added.
Registrations of glass structural data were compiled for Ver. 7. Glass structural data include atomic information (atomic distance, bond angle), ring structure, coordination number, bridging oxygen information, oxidation number, basicity, etc. as analyzed by IR-UV spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, ESR, NMR, etc. With regard to the structural data, only the existence of most of the structural data was indicated with an asterisk (*) as characterization data in Ver. 6; however, other details including the numerical values were not present in this version. Ver. 7 is composed of a property and a structure database.
The latest data are posted on the Internet version twice a year, and posting errors that occur during the collection of INTERGLAD data from various sources are corrected immediately.
(2) Search for glass data
The data and information required by users can be easily extracted using
more than 2,400 keywords or ID’s that are hierarchically arranged. Keywords
or IDs of the property database are classified by State (General Glasses
such as Glass, Glass-Ceramics, Composites; Melts; Non-vitrified; Unspecified);
Glass System (Oxide Glass such as Silica, Alkali Silicate, Alkaline-earth
Silicate; Other Glasses); Composition; Property (Mechanical, Physical;
Thermal; Optical; Electrical, Magnetic, Chemical, Biochemical; etc.); Shape,
Feature & Manufacturing Process, Usage (General; Energy, Nuclear, Radiation;
Optics, Optoelectronics; Electronics, Electrical; Illumination; Architecture,
Traffic, Industry; etc.); Data Source; etc. The keywords or IDs of the
structure database are likewise classified according to State, Glass System,
Composition, Structure Information (atmic distance, coordination number,
etc.), Measurement Method (Raman spectroscopy, NMR, etc.), and Data Source.
A search can be performed by setting at least one condition (keyword or
glass No., except State). The search tools in Ver. 7 are more user-friendly.
It is now possible to select a component using the periodic table or to
select a component or property by inputting a keyword.
The search function can direct one to the following contents:
1) Data on commercial glasses that can be extracted from sources other than catalogues,
2) Detailed descriptions that are generally displayed in the Data List of Property (Structure),
3) Grouped data from a given data source that can be displayed in the same table,
4) Reciprocal referencing between the property database and structure database, which is possible for the searched Data List and the Detail Data,
5) Unit conversions as well as arithmetic operations for compositions and properties,
6) Comparison of values calculated using the additivity equations and fact
(3) Analysis of searched-for glass data
The data searched by a user can be visualized using an XY Plot, a Ternary Plot, and the Element Analysis. With Ver. 7, the interpolation of high temperature properties can be done with few data.
The analysis function accesses the following contents:
1) The relationships between two arbitrarily chosen variables from components,
properties and structures can be plotted on XY charts.
2) XY Plots for property and structure can be shown when the Data List
includes both property data and structure data.
3) High temperature property values for a glass at multiple temperatures
can be plotted on XY charts as Temperature-Property Plots that include
4) Property and structure data can be displayed on a Ternary Plot of chemical
5) The frequency of appearance for each glass element can be shown as Element Distribution for groups of glasses that have specified properties.
(4) Prediction of properties and design of glass composition (composition
INTERGLAD employs two approaches to the prediction of glass properties:
1) Additivity equations (51 equations for 14 properties): The property
value of a glass having a specified chemical composition is calculated
using an additivity equation selected from a list of equations assembled
from papers published in scientific journals.
2) Multiple regression analysis: The relationship between the chemical
composition and any given property of a glass can be derived by means of
multiple regression analysis of the property values of searched-for glasses,
and prediction becomes possible using the derived regression equation.
Two types of equation, with and without a constant, are available.
A multiple regression analysis tool with multiple (quadratic or cubic) polynomials is also available in Ver. 7. Not just one-component terms but also two- and three-component terms can be used as explanatory variables. This is effective for predicting the properties of many glasses for which additivity is not indicated. Values predicted through regression analysis can be compared with the measured values on an X-Y chart.
Glass compositions that fulfill all conditions of three properties can be searched for on the screen using trial and error. It is also possible to display a designed composition on a ternary plot and to compare positions within the glass-forming range. Interpolated property data can also be utilized for multiple regression analysis. New assistance dialogues now make prediction even easier.
(5) Registration of user data
Users of INTERGLAD can incorporate their own data in the INTERGLAD system
and make full use of the integrated datasets. Batch entry of many data
can be done using a simple import method. The user definitions of glass
codes and property labels are free. User data are stored in one’s PC. Because
the data is not externalized, no security problems can arise, even when
one’s PC is connected to the Internet (for the Standard edition).
(6) Convenient Help system
INTERGLAD incorporates the following Help features so that anyone can readily operate the system:
1) Help balloons: Help balloons are attached to every key element on the screen,
2) User’s manual: Full instructions on the use of INTERGLAD can be accessed on-screen (in preparation),
3) Explanations of terms: Various glass terms and their meanings are directly accessible on-screen as a Glossary,
4) Methods of measurement: Methods for measuring property values can also be accessed on-screen.
(7) Data reliability
The reliability of the data assembled in INTERGLAD is entirely dependent on the original data sources that were used: data books, scientific journals, patent applications, and catalogues. Based on the premise that erroneous data can be readily identified through the comparison of a number of data, the NGF did not examine each specific datum in INTERGLAD. However, obviously problematic data were deleted following the release of Ver. 6 through the use of a reliability estimation tool that was developed. In the future, all data will be rated on a scale ranging from low reliability to high reliability.
Every effort has been made to provide accurate data in INTERGLAD. However, the values, data, and information contained in this database cannot be guaranteed for accuracy or for freedom from errors or omissions. The use of INTERGLAD for any purpose is at the users’ own risk, and we disclaim any liability for loss, claims, or damages resulting from its use.